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Language Development

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Cause You Are Young (feat. Note U)

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Sudden unexplained death in epilepsy (SUDEP) is a rare condition in which an otherwise healthy young-to-middle-aged person with epilepsy dies without a clear cause. The person often dies at night or during sleep without witnesses. Researchers believe some of the causes might include:

During the visit, your provider may ask when your symptoms began, how long they last, how often they occur, and if they keep you from going out or doing your usual activities. It may help to make some notes about your symptoms before your visit. Certain medications and some medical conditions, such as viruses or a thyroid disorder, can cause the same depression symptoms. Your provider can rule out these possibilities by doing a physical exam, interview, and lab tests.

Anyone can develop epilepsy, but it most commonly onsets in young children and older adults. According to research published in 2021, men develop epilepsy more often than women, possibly because of higher exposure to risk factors like alcohol use and head trauma.

According to the Epilepsy Foundation, epilepsy affects three million people in the U.S. and 50 million worldwide. Epileptic seizures may be tied to a brain injury or genetics, but for 70 percent of epilepsy patients, the cause is unknown. The Epilepsy Therapy Project notes that 10 percent of people will have seizures in their lifetime.

The reasons why epilepsy begins are different for people of different ages. But what is known is that the cause is undetermined for about half of all individuals with epilepsy, regardless of age. Children may be born with a defect in the structure of their brain or they may suffer a head injury or infection that causes their epilepsy. Severe head injury is the most common known cause in young adults. For middle-age individuals, strokes, tumors and injuries are more frequent catalysts. In people age 65 and older, stroke is the most common known cause, followed by degenerative conditions such as Alzheimer's disease. Often, seizures do not begin immediately after a person has an injury to the brain. Instead, a seizure may occur many months later.

SUDEP is a rare condition in which young or middle-aged people with epilepsy die without a clear cause. It accounts for less than two percent of deaths among people with epilepsy. The risk is about one in 3,000 per year for all people with epilepsy. However, it can be as high as one in 300 for those who have frequent, uncontrollable seizures and take high doses of seizure medicines. Researchers are uncertain why SUDEP causes death. Some believe that a seizure causes an irregular heart rhythm. More recent studies have suggested that the person may suffocate from impaired breathing, fluid in the lungs and lying face down on bedding.

But while the fear of abandonment might be easily dismissed as "Mommy issues" or "Daddy issues," both Dunkers and double board-certified physician Anandhi Narasimhan, M.D., note that any relationship could also be the root cause of abandonment issues. Dunkers says the loss of a loved one at any point in our lifetime can also lend itself to the development of abandonment issues. "In addition, if a spouse or romantic partner decides to end a relationship, this, too, can lead to abandonment issues that could potentially affect future relationships," she adds.

Because of the vast arena of literature available to young womentoday, organizing texts into tentative subcategories should prove practicaland useful for review. It is important to note that a controversial elementof many of these texts is that they deal with "realistic" storiesof girls' lives. In From Romance to Realism: 50 Years of Growth andChange in Young Adult Literature (Harper/Collins, 1996), Michael Cart talksabout those who dismiss young adult literature because of its unfilteredtruths about young lives. Critics contest the notion that girls need to readstories that mirror their own thoughts and concerns. They believe girls arebetter served by books that take them away from their everyday problems, andthey loudly protest those that deal with topics of sexuality, rape, parentaldivorce, abuse, death, societal pressures, and other matters that we know arepart of the world girls occupy. Looming large in this protested group arestories that deal with sex and sexuality. Historical perspective on theevolution of such books helps us understand that early texts sanitized anddesexualized young women into creatures concerned only with proper dress,perfectly coifed hair, and romantic interests that operated from a distance.But some of the first authors in the late twentieth century who dealt withsex and sexuality in adolescent literature changed all of that.

Sold, by Patricia McCormick, is a totally different kind of story.Its truth is so painful that young women will need context and discussion tohelp them through it. McCormick traveled to India and Nepal and to thebrothels of Calcutta to research the sex trade industry and how it affectsgirls. The result is a book of simple, yet terrifying verses and vignettesthat thread together to form the story of Lakshmi, a thirteen-year-old soldby her countryside stepfather into prostitution. The reality of what awaitsher is as unbearable as it is unthinkable. Ultimately, Lakshmi must exhibit alevel of bravery that most girls will never be required to summon and take arisk that will either save her life or further condemn it. This is a bookthat changes readers. The author's note at the end makes the story evenmore real by reminding readers that Lakshmi's fate is that of thousandsof girls each year.

It is no easy feat to take court transcripts, newspaper accounts,and historical records and turn them into page-turning fiction, but that iswhat the authors of the following works have done. The reading audience mayvary for each of these historical novels, but readers who choose based ontheir interests will not be able to put these books down. Because the femalepoint of view is rarely explored in the history girls read in school, thebooks reviewed here are especially important in offering new perspectives.From Katherine Paterson's Lyddie to Robin Morgan's The BurningTime, young adult readers will learn more than simple facts from these texts:they will learn how to fill out historical meaning in a way that makes itpresent in their young lives--a more penetrating and inclusive approach thanthey generally experience. 59ce067264


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